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Sunday, January 13

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Tuesday, October 9

  1. page 3. Credit Union Resources edited ... 1. Atieno, Rosemary. 2001. Formal and informal institutions' lending policies and access to cr…
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    1. Atieno, Rosemary. 2001. Formal and informal institutions' lending policies and access to credit by small-scale enterprises in Kenya: an empirical assessment. African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) ed.The Regal Press Kenya.
Abstract: The main objective of this study is to investigate and assess the role of the institutional lending policies of formal and informal credit institutions in determining the access to and use of credit facilities by small-scale entrepreneurs in rural Kenya. The results of the study show the limited use of credit reflects lack of supply, resulting from the rationing behaviour of both formal and informal lending institutions. The study concludes that given the established network of formal credit institutions, improving lending terms and conditions in favour of small-scale enterprises would provide an important avenue for facilitating their access to credit.
    2. Campion, A. 2001. Mobilizing small, medium and large savings -- motivations and financial risks. Small Enterprise Development 12, no. 3: 11-19.
Abstract: This paper describes the different types of savings accounts that may be offered by microfinance institutions (MFIs), and how each account may benefit the MFI and its clients. It outlines how non-governmental organizations, converted banks, and credit unions approach savings, and the primary reasons MFIs and their clients are becoming more interested in savings products. The risks that must be managed by MFIs offering savings products are then described. It is suggested that savings mobilization can offer MFIs a more stable and cost-effective source of funding to see it through a variety of economic changes in the long term.
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    Mission to Nicaragua .Nicaragua.
    4. Diagne, A, and Manfred Zeller. 2001. Access to credit and its impact on welfare in Malawi. Research-Report, No. 116 ed. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Abstract: This paper analyses the determinants of access to credit and its impact on farm and non-farm income and household food security in Malawi. It is shown that the contribution of rural microfinance institutions to smallholder income can be limited, or negative if the design of the institutions and their services does not take into account the constraints and demands of their clients. A cautious and gradual strategy is recommended for the expansion of rural financial institutions. It is suggested that rural financial institutions should focus primarily on high-potential agricultural areas where they not only lend for production of an array of cash and food crops, but also offer financial services for off-farm enterprises, at low transaction costs.
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    practices are mentioned .mentioned.
    6. Gaiha, Raghav . 2001. Microcredit and the rural poor: a review of the Maharashtra rural credit project. Journal of Microfinance 3, no. 2: 125-53.
Abstract: An attempt is made to review Maharashtra Rural Credit Project (MRCP)-a microcredit scheme-by focusing on the process of implementation and implications of targeting, empowerment of women, and trade off between the coverage of the poorest and sustainability of this scheme. Attention is drawn to the deficiencies in the design and implementation of this scheme that limit the participation of the poorest and the benefits accruing them. Moreover, it is argued that there is a risk of overstating the trade-off between the coverage of the poorest and sustainability of the MRCP if these deficiencies are over-looked.
    7. Lee, Jinkook, and William A Kelly. 2001. The human touch in the information age what do members want? University of Wisconsin--Madison, Wisconsin: Filene Research Institute and Center for Credit Union Research.
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    5. Pal, MS. 1997. Replicating the Grameen Bank in Burkina Faso. Small Enterprise Development. 8, no. 1: 16-22.
Abstract: The article describes Credit with Education, a modified Grameen Bank model implemented in Burkina Faso by an NGO from the USA, Freedom from Hunger. The institutional set-up is examined, whereby the Credit with Education programme has fitted in to a pre-existing system of credit unions (caisses populaires) and smaller village banks (caisses villageoises), which have supplied the funds to the groups of women borrowers. Among the factors contributing to the success of the programme and its high repayment rate is the previous involvement of a large number of the women in traditional rotating savings and credit associations (ROSCAs or tontines).
    6. United States Dept. of the Treasury. 1997. Credit unions. Washington, DC: United States Dept. of the Treasury.
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    for sustainable agricultureagriculture.
    8. Yaron, Jacob, McDonald Benjamin, and Gerda L. Piprek. 1997. Best Practices: Three Success Stories. Rural Finance Issues, Design and Best Practices., 117-37. Washington, D.C.: IBRD- World Bank.
Abstract: This chapter examines the management practices and modes of operation underlying the success of three rural financial institutions (RFI). The Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC), Thailand, the Village Banks (Unit Desas BRI-UD) of Bank Rakyat Indonesia(BRI), and the Grameen Bank (GB) in Bangladesh, have all proven successful in achieving their core objectives of outreach and self-sustainability. Even though each of the three institutions differs in many ways, all have consistently practiced the same basic principles. And although BAAC, the BRI-UD, and the GB are not the only successful RFIs, there is substantial information accessible about their particular successes. Also, all three of these institutions are important to both the rural and national financial sectors. In examining the external factors that contributed to the success of these three RFIs, association may be brought to the complimentary macroeconomics conditions for which they functioned, still they each faced their own limitations and constraints in the implementation of new policies and operating methods. And although the guiding principles of these institutions should be explored, careful measures must be taken in adapting these operations and consideration must be kept in regards to the context of each RFI’s individual objective and clientele. A solution that is successful in one environment may not adapt well in another.
    1996 (8)
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    3. Devereux, S, H Pares, and J Best. 1990. Credit and savings for development. Development Guidelines, no. 1 ed.OQEH.
Abstract: This book focuses mainly on the savings and credit needs of the poor in rural parts of developing countries. The rural household economy and situations in which the need for credit arise are analysed in Part One, with a critique of existent rural financial institutions. The problems encountered are discussed in detail in Part Two, under the chapter headings of creditworthiness, access to credit, default, programme design, participation and dependency. While access to credit is looked at from the point of view of would-be borrowers, creditworthiness and default represent the lenders' view. Savings programmes, considered as important as credit for development of local communities, are also examined. Examples from projects which are mostly administered by OXFAM, including the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh and credit unions in Zambia, are used to verify the arguments. Other case studies are based on India, Zaire, Cameroon, Haiti, Brazil and South Africa. In conclusion several proposals are made in an attempt to maximize the impact of credit and savings schemes. It is important to realize that credit represents only one of the many components of a rural development strategy and there is need for every component to operate efficiently. Where funds are inadequate communal savings systems can act as guarantors to enable individuals and groups to borrow from formal lending institutions. The role of the local organization is crucial in providing information about credit policies and persuading the poor to save as well, especially as credit is considered a foreign concept by many intimidated but potential borrowers. In order to mitigate the effects of inflation and encourage a sense of independence, interest rates are supported, although at a reasonable rate.
    1989 (1)
    1. . 1989OQEH.
Abstract: The
    1988 (1)
    1. Cuevas, CE. 1988. Savings and loans cooperatives in rural areas of developing countries: recent performance and potential. Savings and Development 12, no. 1: 5-17.
Abstract: Drawing on case studies from Cameroon, Rwanda, Togo and Honduras, this paper analyses the main indicators of credit union performance and notes the potential role of credit unions in the development of rural financial systems. The growth rates of credit union savings and loans outstanding are compared with the growth of quasi-money and private sector credit in the economy. The findings indicate that cooperative savings grow in general faster than quasi-money in the economy, thus increasing the relative importance of credit unions in the country's monetary system. This trend is even more visible when comparing the lending performance of credit unions with the growth of private sector credit. The results presented suggest that cooperative organizations can be a dynamic form of financial institution, and are likely substantially to increase access to financial services in rural areas of low income countries.
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Tuesday, June 26

  1. page 5. IIRA Abstracted Articles edited Abstracted Articles ... abstracted articles on cooperative sustainability has been John Cegla…
    Abstracted Articles
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    abstracted articles on cooperative sustainability has been
    John Ceglarek
    Research Assistant, Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs
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    Cooperative sustainability resource database. (2012). J. Ceglarek (Ed.), Macomb, IL: Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs.
    {wikisiources.xlsx}
    Mr. Ceglarek has also compiled links to a number of videos concerning cooperative sustainability, listed in the following document (these links are also included in the IIRA Bibliography):
    {wikivideos.docx}

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    7:38 pm
  2. file wikivideos.docx uploaded
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  3. page 6. IIRA Bibliography edited Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs A substantial bibliography on cooperative literature has bee…
    Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs
    A substantial bibliography on cooperative literature has been updated in 2012 by the Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. A copy may be downloaded here:
    {IIRA_Other_738.pdf}

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    7:34 pm
  4. 7:31 pm
  5. page 5. IIRA Abstracted Articles edited Abstracted Articles The following collection of abstracted articles has been compiled and contrib…
    Abstracted Articles
    The following collection of abstracted articles has been compiled and contributed by:
    John Ceglarek
    Research Assistant, Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs
    Master's Candidate/ Peace Corps Fellow
    Department of Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Administration
    Western Illinois University
    JA-Ceglarek at wiu.edu
    The citation is:
    Cooperative sustainability resource database. (2012). J. Ceglarek (Ed.), Macomb, IL: Illinois Institute for Rural Affairs.
    {wikisiources.xlsx}

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    12:22 pm
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